Hierarchy Includes ... Products Mechanical Thermal Chemical Other
Prevention using less material in design and manufacture, keeping products for longer, re-use, using less hazardous materials         Resource efficiency
Preparing for re-use checking, cleaning, repairing, refurbishing, whole items or spare parts Components or spare parts       Design for end-of-life
Recycling turning waste into a new substance or product Fillers, Humus Grinding     Composting if it meets quality protocols
Other recovery anaerobic digestion, incineration with energy recovery, gasification and pyrolysis which produce energy (fuels, heat and power) and materials from waste, some backfilling Materials

Materials and energy

Incineration with energy recovery

Sub- and super-critical processes
Ionic liquids or Enzymes
Anaerobic digestion

Disposal landfill and incineration without energy recovery (only if all else fails !) Waste   Incineration   Landfill
Scuttle marine vessels