Quality Management and Safety Engineering (BSc) - MST 326|
Definitions of Quality. The Gurus of Quality.
PowerPoint presentation: 88 KB
DEFINITIONS OF QUALITY
From the Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1979.
- degree of excellence
- faculty, skill, accomplishment
- high rank or social standing
- (logic) being affirmative or negative
- distinctive character (of sound, voice etc.)
- concerned with maintenance of high quality (quality control)
From the Quality Management discipline.
- Taguchi & Wu, 1979: Quality, or rather non-quality, defined as “the
losses to society caused by the product after its delivery”
- Bergman and Klefsjö, 1994: “The quality of a product (article or service) is its
ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customers”
- ISO 8402/ISO 9000: “Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of
a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied
THE GURUS OF QUALITY
First, consider the opening lines of Rudyard Kipling's poem
I Keep Six Honest Serving
"I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who" ....
The following is not an exhaustive list:
W Edwards Deming (1900-1993):
- Electrical Engineering, University of Wyoming, 1921
- PhD, Yale University
- Western Electric Hawthorne, Chicago
- US census statistician, 1939/40
- Teaching Shewhart methods, 1942
- invited to Japan after the war ....
- Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position, 1982
- Out of the Crisis, 1986/88
- British Deming Association, Salisbury
- regarded by the Japanese as the chief architect of their industrial
- “all processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if
levels of variation are managed, they can be decreased and quality raised”
- quality is about people, not products
Out of the Crisis (1984) described by Sir John Egan (Jaguar Cars) in Director magazine, September 1988 as
- Core element is the “management circle”
- PDCA (or PISA) cycle:
- Continuous improvement (Kaizen)
- teamwork and competence in problem solving
“required reading for every chief executive in British industry who is serious about ensuring the international competitiveness of his company”
Deming's fourteen points:
- having a satisfied customer is not enough
- profit in business comes from:
- repeat customers
- customers that boast about your product and service
- customers that bring friends with them
- and hence it is necessary to anticipate customer needs
- create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products
- adopt the new philosophy created in Japan
cease dependence on mass inspection build quality into the product
end lowest tender contract: require meaningful quality along with price
improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and
- institute modern methods of training on the job for all,
- adopt and institute leadership aimed at
helping people do a better job
- drive out fear encourage effective
- break down barriers between departments and
- eliminate exhortations for the workforce they only
create adversarial relationships
- eliminate quotas and numerical
targets substitute aid and helpful leadership
- remove barriers to
pride of workmanship including annual appraisals and management by
- encourage education and self improvement for everyone
define top management permanent commitment to ever improving quality and
productivity and their obligation to implement all these principles
- WE Deming, Out of the crisis, MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London UK, 2000. PU CSH Library
Joseph Juran (1904-2008):
- Western Electric manufacturing, 1920s
- AT&T manufacturing
- Quality Control Handbook, 1951
- Management of Quality courses
- Juran on Planning for Quality, 1988
- structured CWQM concept: Company-Wide Quality Management
- essential for senior managers to
- involve themselves
- define the goals
- assign responsibilities
- measure progress
- empowerment of the workforce
- quality linked to human relations
- key elements:
- identifying customers and their needs
- creating measurements of quality
- planning processes to meet quality goals
- continuous improvements
- died, aged 103, of natural causes.
- JM Juran with FM Gryna and RS Bingham., Quality control handbook - third
edition, McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1974. ISBN 0-07-033175-8. PU CSH Library.
- JM Juran, Juran on planning for quality, Free Press, 1988. Third edition, 1993: ISBN 0-07-112992-8. PU CSH Library.
- JM Juran and FM Gryna, Quality planning and analysis: from product
development through use - third edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993. PU CSH Library.
Philip Crosby (1926-2001):
- Martin missiles
- QM at ITT, then corporate VP
- 1979: Quality is Free
- Philip Crosby Associates Inc.
- 1984: Quality without Tears ... “do it right first time” ... “zero
Crosby's Absolutes of Quality Management include the following:
- Quality means conformance to requirements, not “elegance” or
- There is no such thing as a quality problem
- There is no such thing as the economics of quality: doing the job
right first time is always cheaper
- The system for creating quality is prevention, not appraisal
- The only performance standard is "Zero Defects", not “that’s close enough”
- The only performance measurement is the cost of quality, which is the
expense of nonconformance
Manufacturing companies spend around 20% of revenue doing things wrong, then doing them over again.
The Costs of Quality can be classified as:
Service companies may spend 35% of operating expenses in a similar way.
- Prevention costs
- design reviews
- product qualification
- drawing checking
- engineering quality orientation
- supplier evaluations
- supplier quality seminars
- specification review
- process capability studies
- tool control
- operation training
- quality orientation
- acceptance planning
- zero defects programme
- Quality Audits
- preventative maintenance
- Appraisal costs
- prototype inspection and test
- production specification conformance analysis
- supplier surveillance
- receiving inspection and test
- product acceptance
- process control acceptance
- packaging inspection
- status measurement and reporting
- Failure costs
- consumer affairs
- engineering change order
- purchasing change order
- corrective action costs
- after service
- product liability
1992: “Quality, meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do
and to do it right first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation,
finance is the nourishment and relationships are the soul.”
- PB Crosby, Quality is free: the art of making quality certain, New
American Library, 1979. PU CSH Library.
- PB Crosby, Quality without tears: the art of hassle-free management,
McGraw Hill, 1984. PU CSH Library.
- PB Crosby, Quality is still free: making quality certain in uncertain
times, McGraw-Hill, c1996. PU CSH Library.
Shigeo Shingo (1909-1990):
- 1930: ME degree from Yamanashi Tech
- Taipei Railway Factory, Taiwan
- consultant with Japan Management Assn
- 1955: training at Toyota Motor Company
- 1959: Institute of Management Improvement
- 1961-64: concept of Poka-Yoke
- identify errors before they become defects
- stop the process whenever a defect occurs, define the source and prevent recurrence
1967: source inspection and improved Poka-Yoke
- prevented the worker from making errors so that defects could not occur
- Zero Quality Control
- Shigeo Shingō (translated by AP Dillon), A revolution in manufacturing:
the SMED system, Productivity Press, 1985. ISBN 0-915299-03-8. PU CSH Library.
- Shigeo Shingō (translated by AP Dillon), Zero quality control: source
inspection and the Poka-yoke system, Productivity Press, 1986. ISBN 0-915299-07-0. PU CSH Library.
- Shigeo Shingō (translated by AP Dillon), The sayings of Shigeo Shingo: key
strategies for plant improvement, Productivity Press, 1987. ISBN 0-915299-15-1. PU CSH Library.
- Shigeo Shingō, Non-stock production: the Shingo system for continuous
improvement, Productivity Press, 1989.ISBN 0-915299-30-5. PU CSH Library.
- Shigeo Shingō (translated by AP Dillon), A study of the Toyota production
system from an industrial engineering viewpoint, Productivity Press, 1989. ISBN 0-915299-17-8. PU CSH Library.
Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989)
- 1939: engineering graduate of Tokyo Univ
- 1947: Assistant Professor
- 1955-60: Company-wide QC movement
- 1960: Professor (still at Tokyo!)
- “quality does not only mean
the quality of the product,
but also of after sales service,
quality of management,
the company itself
and human life”.
Ishikawa's fifteen points
- product quality is improved and becomes uniform: defects are reduced
- reliability of goods is improved
- cost is reduced
- quantity of production is increased, rational production schedules are
- wasteful work and rework are reduced
- technique is established and improved
- inspection and testing costs are reduced
- rational contracts between vendor/vendee
- sales market is enlarged
- better relationships between departments
- false data and reports are reduced
- freer, more democratic discussions
- smoother operation of meetings
- more rational repairs and installation
- improved human relations
- Kaoru Ishikawa, Guide to quality control (translation of Genba no QC Shuho),
Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo, 1982. ISBN 92-8331035-7. PU CSH Library.
- Kaoru Ishikawa, What is total quality control?: the Japanese way,
Prentice-Hall, 1985. ISBN 0-13-952441-x. PU CSH Library.
Yoshio Kondo (b.1924)
- 1945: graduated from Kyoto University
- 1961: doctorate in engineering & Prof
- 1987 Emeritus Professor
- 1989: Human Motivation
- a key factor for management
- 1993: CompanyWide Quality Control
- leadership is central to implementation of TQM
Human work should include:
- the joy of thinking
- physical activity
- the joy of working with sweat on the forehead
- the joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues
Four points of action to support motivation
- when giving work instruction, clarify the true aims of the work
- see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work
- give time for the creation of ideas
- nurture ideas and bring them to fruition
Leaders must have:
- a dream (vision and shared goals)
- strength of will and tenacity of purpose
- ability to win the support of followers
- ability to do more than their followers, without interfering when they can do it alone
- ability to give the right advice
Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990)
Identified seven forms of waste:
- regarded as the father of Just-In-Time (JIT) at Toyota.
- graduated with a mechanical engineering degree from Nogoya Technical High
- worked for the Toyoda Weaving Company
- 1939: transferred to Toyota Motor Company as a machine shop manager
- 1988: two books Workplace Management describing just-in-time
and Toyota Production System (later known as Lean Manufacturing).
- Taiichi Ohno, Workplace Management, Productivity Press, Portland OR,
- Taiichi Ohno, Toyota Production system: beyond large-scale production,
Productivity Press, Portland OR, 1988. ISBN 0-915299-14-3. UOP Library.
And finally, note what Sheldon and Yoxon have to say: "people who don't know vote no"
Complementary teaching support materials:
- James Evans and William Lindsay, The Management and Control of Quality - Fifth
South-Western/Thomson Learning, Cincinnati OH, 2001. ISBN 0-324-06680-5. PU CSH Library.
inc. CD-ROM with QuickTimeTM videos, web links and spreadsheets. ISBN
For this lecture:
- Tony Bendell, The Quality Gurus: what can they do for your company?, Department of Trade and Industry, London, October 1991. PU CSH Library.
- Carol Kennedy: Guide to the Management Gurus: the best guide to business
thinkers, Random House Business Books,
London, 1998. ISBN 0-7126-7950-2. Fourth edition, 2002: ISBN 0-7126-2072-9. PU CSH Library.
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Updated by John Summerscales on
24-Jul-2014 13:11. Terms and conditions. Errors and omissions. Corrections.