Quality Management and Safety Engineering (BSc) - MST 326
Definitions of Quality.  The Gurus of Quality.

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From the Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1979.

From the Quality Management discipline.


First, consider the opening lines of Rudyard Kipling's poem I Keep Six Honest Serving Men:

"I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who" ....

The following is not an exhaustive list:

W Edwards Deming (1900-1993):

Out of the Crisis (1984) described by Sir John Egan (Jaguar Cars) in Director magazine, September 1988 as
“required reading for every chief executive in British industry who is serious about ensuring the international competitiveness of his company” Deming's fourteen points:
  1. create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products and service
  2. adopt the new philosophy created in Japan
  3. cease dependence on mass inspection build quality into the product
  4. end lowest tender contract: require meaningful quality along with price
  5. improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service
  6. institute modern methods of training on the job for all, including management
  7. adopt and institute leadership aimed at helping people do a better job
  8. drive out fear encourage effective two-way communication
  9. break down barriers between departments and staff areas
  10. eliminate exhortations for the workforce they only create adversarial relationships
  11. eliminate quotas and numerical targets substitute aid and helpful leadership
  12. remove barriers to pride of workmanship including annual appraisals and management by objectives
  13. encourage education and self improvement for everyone
  14. define top management permanent commitment to ever improving quality and productivity and their obligation to implement all these principles


Joseph Juran (1904-2008):


Philip Crosby (1926-2001):

Crosby's Absolutes of Quality Management include the following:

Manufacturing companies spend around 20% of revenue doing things wrong, then doing them over again.
Service companies may spend 35% of operating expenses in a similar way.

The Costs of Quality can be classified as:

1992: “Quality, meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation,
finance is the nourishment and relationships are the soul.”


Shigeo Shingo (1909-1990):

Poka-Yoke: mistake-proofing

1967: source inspection and improved Poka-Yoke


Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989)

Ishikawa's fifteen points

  1. product quality is improved and becomes uniform: defects are reduced
  2. reliability of goods is improved
  3. cost is reduced
  4. quantity of production is increased, rational production schedules are possible
  5. wasteful work and rework are reduced
  6. technique is established and improved
  7. inspection and testing costs are reduced
  8. rational contracts between vendor/vendee
  9. sales market is enlarged
  10. better relationships between departments
  11. false data and reports are reduced
  12. freer, more democratic discussions
  13. smoother operation of meetings
  14. more rational repairs and installation
  15. improved human relations


Yoshio Kondo (b.1924)

Human work should include:

Four points of action to support motivation

  1. when giving work instruction, clarify the true aims of the work
  2. see that people have a strong sense of responsibility towards their work
  3. give time for the creation of ideas
  4. nurture ideas and bring them to fruition

Leaders must have:

Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990)

Identified seven forms of waste:


And finally, note what Sheldon and Yoxon have to say: "people who don't know vote no"


Complementary teaching support materials:


For this lecture:

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Updated by John Summerscales on 24-Jul-2014 13:11. Terms and conditions. Errors and omissions. Corrections.