Quality Management and Safety Engineering (BSc) - MST 326|
Quality Function Deployment (QFD).
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QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) is a systematic method for
transferring customer wants/needs/expectations into product and process
It was developed by Shigeru Mizuno (1910-1989) and Yoji Akao (b.1928) in Japan
and is hinshitsu kino tenkai in the native
QFD is an excellent tool for communication between cross-functional groups as
it provides a common basis for:
- Integrated Product Development
- Simultaneous Engineering
- Concurrent Engineering
QFD work divides into four parts
- market analysis to establish needs and expectations
- examination of competitors abilities
- identification of key factors for success
- translation of key factors into product and process characteristics
Conjoint Analysis (market survey)
- potential customers asked to rank a number of product concepts
- important factors chosen by factorial design with two levels (statistical
design of experiments)
Analysis of competitor products should:
- go on continuously
- subject them to same scrutiny as own company products
Toyota halved design costs and reduced development time by 1/3 after starting
to use QFD
The four stages required for a full QFD are:
- Product planning - the House of Quality
- wishes of customer transferred to product
- evaluation of competitor products
- identification of important properties
- Product design - parts deployment
- choose best design to fulfil targets
- identify critical parts and components
- further R&D if needed
- Process design - process planning
- critical parameters identified
- process control/improvement methods set
- Production design - production planning
- design instructions for production
- define measurements, frequency and tools to be used
The first block, the House of Quality, will normally look like this
although a comparative analysis against the competitors product is often added
to the right and below the matrix. The full QFD matrix will then normally look like this
A template for QFD analysis can be found on a link from the University of Western Ontario Faculty of Engineering webpage for
module ES 050 - Introductory Engineering Design and
Chan and Wu  undertook a literature review based on 650
QFD publications and identified ten key publications [2-11] offering
"comprehensive coverage of [the] historical, conceptual, methodological and
practical aspects" of the technique. Evans and Burns  reported
the findings of three research methods (murmur of the customer, delighter
clinics and delighter self-report exercise) used to study customer delight
during product evaluation. By combining their empathic design process with
tools such as QFD and measures of return-on-investment, they suggest that an
ideal design might be achieved.
- Lai-Kow Chan and Ming-Lu Wu,
deployment: a literature review, European Journal of Operational Research,
16 December 2002, 143(3), 463-497.
- AT Bahill and WL Chapman, A tutorial on quality function deployment, Engineering Management Journal, 1993, 5(3), 24-35.
- L Cohen, Quality Function Deployment: How to Make QFD Work for You, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA, 1995. PU CSH Library.
- JJ Cristiano, JK Liker and CC White III, Customer-driven product development through quality function deployment in the US and Japan, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 2000, 17(4), 286–308.
- RG Day, Quality Function Deployment: Linking a Company with Its Customers, ASQC Quality Press, Milwaukee WI, 1993.
- CPM Govers, What and how about quality function deployment (QFD), International Journal of Production Economics, December 1996, 46-47, 575-585.
- JR Hauser and D Clausing, The house of quality, Harvard Business Review, 1998, 66(3), 63-73.
- A Hill, Quality function deployment, Chapter 21 in D Lock (editor), Gower Handbook of Quality Management - second edition, Gover, Brookfield VT, 1994, pp 364–386. PU CSH Library.
- B Prasad, Review of QFD and related deployment techniques, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 1998, 17(3), 221–234.
- JB ReVelle, JW Moran and CA Cox, The QFD Handbook, Wiley, New York, 1998.
- LP Sullivan, Quality function deployment, Quality Progress, 1986, 19(6), 39–50.
- S Evans and AD Burns,
An investigation of customer delight during product evaluation: implications
for the development of desirable products, Proc IMechE Part B, Journal
of Engineering Manufacture, 2007, 221(11), 1625-1640.
URLs for Quality Function Deployment (QFD) (checked as live on 01 February 2007):
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Created by John Summerscales on 10 January 2005 and updated on
24-Jul-2014 10:30. Terms and conditions. Errors and omissions. Corrections.