|Quality Management and Safety Engineering (BSc) - MST 326|
The culture of organisations.
PowerPoint presentation: 109 KB
Learning styles (Honey and Mumford)
Peter Honey and Alan Mumford introduced a self-administered learning-styles questionnaire which enables a student to understand their own individual approach to learning [Swinton]. The questionnaire determines your preferred learning style with the analysis considering four basic techniques:
Knowledge of your learning style can accelerate your learning as you undertake activities that best fit your preferred style. Knowing your learning style can also help avoid repeating mistakes by undertaking activities that strengthen other styles.
Reference: Lyndsay Swinton, Honey & Mumford – Learning Style Questionnaire, http://www.mftrou.com/honey-mumford.html, accessed 24 July 2014.
Team rôles (Belbin).
Meredith Belbin and his researchers at Henley Management College studied the behaviour of managers from all over the world. Their individual core personality traits, intellectual styles and behaviours were assessed and classified into clusters of behaviour according to the success of the teams:
|Action-oriented roles||Shaper ... Implementer ... Completer/Finisher|
|People-oriented roles||Co-ordinator ... Teamworker ... Resource/Investigator|
|Cerebral roles||Plant ... Monitor/Evaluator ... Specialist|
Reference: Belbin® Home > Team Roles > History and Research, http://www.belbin.com/rte.asp?id=3, accessed 24 july 2014.
The Culture of Organisations
Trompenaars  considered how cultural (national) differences affected the process of doing business with international organisations. The book attempts to do three things:
He suggests that "every culture distinguishes itself from others by the specific solutions it chooses to certain problems" and groups these issues under three headings;
People within a culture do not have identical basic assumptions (implicit), norms and values (tribal attributes) or artefacts and products (explicit). The variation in each of these may have a wide spread and could be perceived as a statistical distribution. The assumption of a single common characteristic for any culture leads to stereotyping. In relationships with other people, Trompenaars identifies five dimensions (value orientations) which greatly influence business, management and moral responses:
While cultures can generally be described in terms of the above paired options, Trompenaars divides organisations into four groups as in the quadrants of the Figure below, and [his Figure 11.5] ascribes national patterns of corporate culture to each of the four categories. Wherever they are located, smaller companies are more likely to take the family/incubator forms whereas larger companies tend to choose the Eiffel Tower or guided missile forms.
USA, Canada, UK
France, Belgium, India, Spain Japan
Netherlands, Denmark, Germany
Avery  identified 19 criteria for sustainable leadership practices from Rhineland (Germany/Switzerland) companies (Table 1). The book argues that the "Anglo/US approach to capitalism and business is seriously flawed and does not bring the quality of life to individuals and societies that many people seek" and thus by shifting to embrace the Rhineland criteria in the Sustainable Leadership Grid (Table 1) companies can become financially, socially and environmentally successful.
Table 1: The Sustainable Leadership Grid comparing
Rhineland and Anglo/US models (from Avery (2005) ),
subdivided into Management and Decision Making (yellow) - Focus on People (pink) - Systems and Processes (blue).
|CEO concept||top team speaker||decision maker, hero|
|Ethical behaviour||an explicit value||ambivalent|
|Financial markets||challenge them||follow them|
|Knowledge management||shared||a challenge|
|Management development||grow their own||import managers|
|Organisational culture||strong||a challenge|
|Quality||high is a given||difficult to deliver|
|Uncertainty and change||considered process||fast adjustment|