Composites Design and Manufacture (Plymouth University teaching support materials)
Smart materials and intelligent structures
Lecture
PowerPoint
Reading
Lists
Review
papers
Subject
Index

Go directly to the biomimetics page

Smart materials and intelligent structures [1-15] comprise a wide ranging multidisciplinary activity embracing subjects ranging through polymer chemistry, materials research, sensor technology, signal processing techniques, novel mechanical and structural engineering and innovative approaches to control and actuation.

The distinction between smart and intelligent is not clear.  The word smart appears in one Japanese/(American) English dictionary as the Japanese for intelligent (EPSRC Newsline, September 1995)!

For our purpose here we will take:

A material will always act in a predictable way (within the statistical variation inherent in the properties), whereas a structure may act in a predictable way, an indeterminate way or according to some control system.  A material cannot make a decision as to how to respond, but must respond in a consistent manner, unless the properties have been changed by its history (by fracture, yielding, heat treatment etc).  It has no capability to decide which action to take and therefore can only be smart according to the above definitions.  A structure may be either smart or intelligent.

Note that some so-called materials have complex internal structures and can only be considered as a single material when the scale at which they are considered is large in relation to the scale of the microstructure.  This is especially apparent in composite materials where the structure can only be considered homogeneous at a scale somewhat larger than the unit cell of the fabric reinforcement.

There are fundamentally three separate inter-acting parts to an intelligent structure.  These parts are embedded sensors (Table 1) > signal processing and control > actuator (Table 2).  Following from the above definitions, we can now separate smart (eg. photochromic glass or low melting point wax in a fire sprinkler) from intelligent (eg. active suspensions) such that the former does not have a control system and the latter has all the three required components.

Table 1:  Typical sensing systems
TechnologyApplicationReferences
microdielectric electrodesresin cure or moisture content [16]
shape memory alloy (SMA) nitinol (Ni/Ti) wiresstrain measurement [17-20]
shape memory polymers  [21-24]
ferromagnetic microwiresstrain measurement [25-26]
optical fibre arrayscure, strain measurement, fracture, acoustic emission, debonding [27-35]
piezoelectric transducersacoustic emission [36-38]

Key issues in signal processing and control are data fusion for large sensor arrays and control protocols, e.g. genetic algorithms (GA) or fuzzy logic (FL) or artificial neural networks (ANN) or knowledge based systems (KBS)/artificial intelligence(AI)/expert systems).

Table 2:  Typical actuator systems
TechnologyApplicationReferences
piezoelectric actuatorsconvert electric control signals to movement [39]
magnetostrictive materialsconvert magnetic signals to strain [40]
magnetorheological fluidsactive vibration damping [41-45]
electrorheological fluidsactive vibration damping [46-48]
shape memory materialstemperature dependent reaction forces [49-52]
hydrogels swell (or shrink) with changing water content [53-54]

The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven ADAPTive Composites with Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wires project presents a Video showing the shape change of a SMA-composite.

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) [55-56] are the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. The electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes).  The micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.

A related technology is biomimetics (lessons from nature for engineering).

References

  1. DM Addington and DL Schodek  Smart materials and technologies for the architecture and design professions, Architectural Press (Elsevier Science), Oxford, 2005. ISBN 0-7506-6225-5.  PU CSH Library.
  2. PR Ciriscioli and GS Springer, Smart autoclave cure of composites, Technomic Publishing AG, Basel CH, 1990.  PU CSH Library.
  3. B Culshaw, Smart structures and materials, Artech House, Boston, 1996. ISBN 0890066817.
  4. MV Gandhi and BS Thompson, Smart materials and structures, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992.  ISBN 0-412-37010-7.  PU CSH Library
  5. SK Ghosh, Self-healing materials: fundamentals, design, strategies and applications, Wiley, 2008.  ISBN 978-2-527-31829-2.
  6. J Hu, Shape memory polymers and textiles, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, April 2007. ISBN-13: 978-1-84569-047-2.
  7. K Otsuka and CM Wayman, Shape Memory Materials, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998/99.  ISBN 0-521-44487-x.  PU CSH Library.
  8. J Singh, Smart Electronic Materials - Fundamentals and Applications, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN13 978-0-521-85027-8.  PU CSH Library
  9. V Srinivasan and DM McFarland, Smart structures: analysis and design, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.  ISBN 0-521-65977-9.  UOP Library.
  10. WJ Staszewski, C Boller and GR Tomlinson, Health monitoring of aerospace structures : smart sensor technologies and signal processing, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2004. ISBN 0-470-84340-3.  PU CSH Library
  11. X Tao, Smart fibres, fabrics and clothing, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, 2001.  ISBN 1-85573-546-6.  PU CSH Library.
  12. E Udd, Fiber optic smart structures, Wiley, New York/Chichester, 1995.
  13. S van der Zwaag, Self Healing Materials, Springer, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4020-6249-0.
  14. K Worden, W A Bullough and J Haywood, Smart technologies, World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, Singapore, 2003.  ISBN 981-02-4776-1.  PU CSH Library.
    Book review from January 2005 Materials World (with references)
  15. Smart Materials and Structures (journal), Institute of Physics e-resource
  16. AV Mamishev, K Sundara-Rajan, F Yang, Y Du and M Zahn, Interdigital sensors and transducers, Proceedings IEEE, May 2004, 92(5), 808-845.
  17. S Barbarino, EI Saavedra Flores, RM Ajaj, I Dayyani and MI Friswell, A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft, Smart Materials and Structures, 2014, 23(6), 063001.
  18. JMd Jani, M Leary, A Subic and MA Gibson, A review of shape memory alloy research, applications and opportunities, Materials & Design, April 2014, 56, 1078–1113.
  19. ZG Wei, R Sandström and S Miyazaki, Shape-memory materials and hybrid composites for smart systems: Part I Shape-memory materials, Journal of Materials Science, 1 August 1998, 33(15), 3743-3762.
  20. ZG Wei, R Sandstrom and S Miyazaki, Shape memory materials and hybrid composites for smart systems: Part II Shape-memory hybrid composites, Journal of Materials Science, 1 August 1998, 33(15), 3763-3783.
  21. B Adhikari and S Majumdar, Polymers in sensor applications, Progress in Polymer Science, 2004, 29(7), 699-766.
  22. C Liu, H Qin and PT Mather, Review of progress in shape-memory polymers, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 2007, 17, 1543-1558.
  23. H Meng and G Li, A review of stimuli-responsive shape memory polymer composites, Polymer, 19 April 2013, 54(9), 2199–2221.
  24. GP Tandon, AJW McClung and JW Baur, Shape-Memory Polymers for Aerospace Applications: novel synthesis, modeling, characterization and design, DEStech Publications, Lancaster PA, November 2015.  ISBN 978-1-60595-118-8.
  25. Faxiang Qin and Hua-Xin Peng, Ferromagnetic microwires enabled multifunctionalcomposite materials, Progress in Materials Science, 2013, 58, 183–259.
  26. Faxiang Qin, Ferromagnetic Microwires Enabled Multifunctional Composites, Scholars' Press, 2014.  ISBN-13: 978-3-639-70888-2.
  27. Anon., Fibre optics give the inside story, Advanced Composites Engineering, Winter 1987, 2(4), 17.
  28. S Black, Megayacht composite masts get "smart", High-Performance Composites, January 2007, 15(1), 44-46.
  29. R Bogue, Fibre optic sensors: a review of today's applications, Sensor Review, 2011, 31(4), 304-309.
  30. RP Main, Fibre optic sensors: future light, Sensor Review, July 1985, 5(3), 133-139.
  31. RM Measures, M le Blanc, K Liu, S Ferguson, T Valis, D Hogg, R Turner and K McEwen, Fibre optic sensors for smart structures, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 1992, 16(2-3), 127-152.
  32. A Ploszajski, Fibre optics, Materials World, July 2014, 21(7), 62-64.
  33. O Sidek and M Hassan Bin Afzal, A review paper on fiber-optic sensors and application of PDMS materials for enhanced performance, IEEE Symposium on Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), Langkawi, 25-28 September 2011, 458-463.
  34. J Summerscales, Embedded optical sensors in fibre reinforced plastics, International Journal of Optical Sensors, July 1986, 1(4), 287-298.
  35. RD Turner, T Valis, WD Hogg and RM Measures, Fibre optic strain sensors for smart structures, Journal of Intelligent Materials Systems and Structures, January 1990, 1(1), 26-49.
  36. H Irschik, M Krommer and Y Vetyukov, On the use of piezoelectric sensors in structural mechanics: some novel strategies, Sensors, 2010, 10, 5626-5641.
  37. KS Ramadan, D Sameoto and S Evoy, A review of piezoelectric polymers as functional materials for electromechanical transducers, Smart Materials and Structures, 2014, 23(3), 033001.
  38. JF Tressler, S Alkoy and RE Newnham, Piezoelectric sensors and sensor materials, Journal of Electroceramics, December 1998, 2(4), 257-272.
  39. TG King, ME Preston, BJM Murphy and DS Cannell, Piezoelectric ceramic actuators: a review of machinery applications, Precision Engineering, July 1990, 12(3), 131–136.
  40. JingHua Liu, ChengBao Jiang, HuiBin Xu, Giant magnetostrictive materials, Science China Technological Sciences, May 2012, 55(5), 1319-1326.
  41. D Baranwal and TS Deshmukh, MR - fluid technology and its application - a review, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, December 2012, 2(12), 563-569.
  42. M Kciuk and R Turczyn, Properties and applicationof magnetorheological fluids, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, September-October 2006, 18(1-2), 127-130.
  43. A Muhammad, X-l Yao and Z-c Deng, Review of magnetorheological (MR) fluids and its applications in vibration control, Journal of Marine Science and Application, September 2006, 5(3), 17-29.
  44. J de Vicente, DJ Klingenberg and R Hidalgo-Alvareza, Magnetorheological fluids: a review, Soft Matter, 2011, 7, 3701-3710.
  45. J Wang and G Meng, Magnetorheological fluid devices: principles, characteristics and applications in mechanical engineering, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers L: Journal of Materials: Design & Applications, 2001, 215(3), 165-174.
  46. SS Gawade and AA Jadhav, A review on electrorheological (ER) fluids and its applications, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), December 2012, 1(10), 1-7.
  47. Ping Sheng and Weijia Wen, Electrorheological fluids: mechanisms, dynamics, and microfluidics applications, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, January 2012, 44, 143-174.
  48. W Wen, X Huang and P Sheng, Electrorheological fluids: structures and mechanisms, Soft Matter, 2008, 4(2), 200-210.
  49. N Gabdullin and S H Khan, Review of properties of magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloys and MSM actuator designs, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2015, 588(conference 1), 012052.
  50. MdM Kheirikhah, S Rabiee and MdE Edalat, A review of shape memory alloy actuators in robotics, RoboCup 2010: Robot Soccer World Cup XIV Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2011, 6556, 206-217.
  51. A Nespoli, S Besseghini, S Pittaccio, E Villa and S Viscuso, The high potential of shape memory alloys in developing miniature mechanical devices: a review on shape memory alloy mini-actuators, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, March 2010, 158(1), 149–160.
  52. M Sreekumar, T Nagarajan, M Singaperumal, M Zoppi and R Molfino, Critical review of current trends in shape memory alloy actuators for intelligent robots, Industrial Robot: An International Journal, 2007, 34(4), 285-294.
  53. G Gerlach and K-F Arndt (editors), Hydrogel Sensors and Actuators: Engineering and Technology (Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors volume 6) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010.  ISBN 978-3-540-75644-6 (print).  ISBN 978-3-540-75645-3 (online).
  54. L Ionov, Hydrogel-based actuators: possibilities and limitations, Materials Today, December 2014, 17(10), 494–503.
  55. What is MEMS technology? (MEMS and Nanotechnology Clearinghouse)
  56. Sandeep Kumar Vashist, Review of Microcantilevers for Sensing Applications, Journal of Nanotechnology Online, 18 June 2007 (PDF format 319 KB).

Additional resources

Click here for TalisList

 Hot-linked references may only return an abstract, which will allow you to judge the relevance of the paper to your work.
 Should you need to login to access the full publication, then it is recommended that you use TalisList with Athens authentication.

Return to MATS 347 home page
Updated by John Summerscales on 11-Sep-2019 14:32 (biomimetics moved to a separate page on 22 June 2005). Terms and conditions. Errors and omissions. Corrections.