Composites Design and Manufacture (Plymouth University teaching support materials)
Examples of how to cite the references in your reports.

I am not a fan of bibliographies: if you read it and it was not relevant to the report, then I don't need to know that!  References should be cited in the text and traceable from a list at the end of the report! The Harvard Referencing system uses an author(s) name(s) and year in the text with a list of references in alphabetical order by surname, then in chronological order by year.  The numbered reference system has a number (either in square brackets: [..] or as a superscript) in the text with a numerical list of references, although it is common to also name the author(s) of the information.

In the body text, the convention is that:

The reference list should show the surnames and initials of all authors of the cited work.  In the Harvard system, when there are multiple papers by the same first author, the reference list is normally organised in alphabetical order, then in the same sequence as the three bullet points above, and finally in chronological order by year.

Current best practice is to also include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
   where one is available, normally at the end of the listed reference as "DOI: 10.1016/B978-1-78242-250-1.00008-9".
If you precede a DOI (an enduring URL) with you should always get to the desired paper.

Although there may appear to be some redundant information in these formats, there is also an insurance against typing errors (and/or poor photocopies) corrupting the information to the extent that the item is irretrievable.  Only the information in the right-hand column is needed (the left-hand column is simply for explanation).


Explanation   Example
Location, date.  ISBN. 
 A B Strong,
 Fundamentals of composites manufacturing,
 Society of Manufacturing Engineers,
 Dearborn MI, 1989.  ISBN 0-87263-358-6.

Chapters in books

Explanation   Example
Chapter author, 
Chapter title, 
Book editor/author: 
Book title, 
Location, date, chapter, pages. ISBN. 
 L J Hart-Smith,
 Design of adhesively bonded joints,
 In F L Matthews (editor):
 Joining fibre-reinforced plastics,
 Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd,
 London and New York, 1986, chapter 7,  pages 271-311.  ISBN 0-85166-019-4.

Journal papers

Explanation   Example
Journal, date, volume (part), pages. 
 CM Leavey, MN James, J Summerscales and R Sutton,
 An introduction to wavelet transforms: a tutorial approach,
 Insight, May 2003, 45(5), 344-353.

Conference papers

Explanation   Example
Organisers, location, date, (session), pages. 
Publisher, location, date. ISBN. 
 E O Ibitolu and J Summerscales
 Acoustic emission source location in reinforced composites
 Preprints 2nd Int Conf Testing, Evaluation and Quality Control of Composites,
 Butterworths, Guildford, September 1987, Session 5, pages 128-133.
 Butterworth Scientific, Sevenoaks, 1987. ISBN 0-408-025-697.


Explanation   Example
Report source and number, 
site, date. 
Additional identifiers. 
 P T Curtis
 CRAG test methods for the measurement of the engineering properties of reinforced plastics
 Royal Aerospace Establishment report RAE-TR-88-012,
 Farnborough UK, February 1988.
 DRIC BR-107250.  Materials/Structures 218.

Internet sources

The digital object identifier (DOI) system provides persistent and actionable identification and interoperable exchange of managed information on digital networks [DOI Handbook]. Always include the DOI if available.

The minimum citation should be a full Uniform Resource Locator (URL) - not just the domain name - and the date accessed.
In order to be certain that you have the correct URL, <right click> on the page and select Properties to display the full Address (URL).
Do check for author names and any dates given particularly as these may be at the end of the page.
For more information see:

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Created by John Summerscales on 18 April 2006 and updated on 02-Dec-2016 10:05. Terms and conditions. Errors and omissions. Corrections.