Quality Management and Safety Engineering (BSc) - MST 326
Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000).  Environmental Protection Act.
Polluter Pays Principle (PPP).  Precautionary Principle.  Remanufacturing.  Technology Insertion.

Concern for environmental issues is not a new phenomenon: key dates ..and.. definitions of eco-efficiency.
A key political concept in this context is Sustainability and a major tool is Life Cycle Assessment/Analysis (LCA).
Resources for environmental impacts and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).

PowerPoint presentation: Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000).  Polluter Pays Principle (PPP).  Precautionary Principle (60 KB).

Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000)

Key management systems include:

and in an ideal situation these would be integrated as indicated in the Figure:

Venn diagram integrated management standards

BS 7750 Environmental Management Systems was originally published in 1992 and updated in 1994. The pilot implementation program involved nearly 500 participants. The ISO 14000 series is modelled on BS7750 influenced by the Uruguay GATT negotiations and Rio Environment Summit in 1992. The standard is a model for an environmental management system consisting of several guideline standards with one compliance standard -- ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems.

The process for registration is similar to that for ISO 9000 registration. An organization may elect to comply with ISO 14001 as a:

The benefits of implementing ISO 14001 may include:

Registration to ISO 14001 should be considered when it:

Registration generally requires twelve to eighteen months of effort depending on the complexity of the organization and the existing systems. It will take at least the same time to develop and implement an Environmental Management System which complies with ISO 14001 requirements.

The compliance standard, ISO 14001 Environmental Management System has the following elements:

  1. Environmental policy
  2. Planning
    1. Environmental aspects
    2. Legal and other requirements
    3. Objectives and targets
    4. Environmental management program(s)
  3. Implementation and operation
    1. Structure and responsibility
    2. Training, awareness and competence
    3. Communication
    4. Environmental management system documentation
    5. Document control
    6. Operational control
    7. Emergency preparedness and response
  4. Checking and corrective action
    1. Monitoring and measurement
    2. Non-conformance and corrective and preventive action
    3. Records
    4. Environmental management system audit
  5. Management review

while the individual standards are:

PD ISO/TR 14062:2002 is intended for use by all those involved in the design and development of products.  It suggests that the potential benefits of this methodology may include:

When Ford's Tier I suppliers had to certify at least one of their manufacturing facilities to the ISO 14001 Standard, Sally Lee (Environmental Purchasing Strategy Specialist) at Ford Motor Company interviewed by the Environmental Management Report stated:

"that they are generally pleased with the response to date and do not plan to extend the [31 December 2001] deadline".

All manufacturing sites shipping products to Ford had to be certified by 1 July 2003.

IBM strongly encouraged its suppliers to register to IS0 140001.

General Motors required all of its suppliers to be certified to the ISO 14001 Standard by 31 December 2002.

Environmental Management Systems

Sheldon and Yoxon suggest that a score should be calculated for each different area of business:

Score = Environmental hazard x Likelihood of the problem arising x Size of the Problem

Each parameter is allocated a value ranging from 1 for a low rating up to 3 for high rating. The minimum score is thus one and the maximum score is 27.  A Pareto chart can then indicate which issues should be given highest priority.

  1. C Sheldon and M Yoxon, Environmental Management Systems – a step-by-step guide to implementation and maintenance – third edition, Earthscan, London and Sterling VA, 2006.  ISBN: 978-1-844072-57-6.  PU CSH Library.

The Green Blue is a new environmental awareness initiative by the British Marine Federation and the Royal Yachting Association which aims to promote the sustainable use of coastal and inland waters by boating and watersports participants, and the sustainable operation and development of the recreational boating industry.  Green Blue has prepared a series of case studies of environmental good practice, including:

URLs for ISO 14000 (checked as live on 09 April 2018):

URLs for ISO 14040 (checked as live on 09 April 2018):

For relevant recommended reading on polymers and composites, see the MATS324 environmental implications page.

Environmental Protection Act

  1. Integrated Pollution Control and Air Pollution Control by Local Authorities
  2. Waste on Land
  3. Statutory Nuisances and Clean Air
  4. Litter, etc.
  5. Radioactive Substances
  6. Genetically Modified Organisms
  7. Nature Conservation and Countryside Matters
  8. Miscellaneous
  9. General

URLs for national Environment Protection legislation (checked as live on 09 April 2018):

Polluter-Pays Principle

Directive 2004/35/EC (of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004) on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (ELD) establishes a framework based on the polluter pays principle to prevent and remedy environmental damage.  This is "the principle that a company that causes pollution should pay for the cost of removing it, or provide compensation to those who have been affected by it" [MSN Encarta, accessed Monday 29 November 2004 18:16].  The core of the "Polluter Pays" principle is that:

Unfortunately, when and how much the polluter should pay is often unclear. One way to adequately implement the PPP in the real world makes use of what are known as assurance bonds:

Precautionary Principle

The Precautionary Principle (Ministerial Declaration on Sustainable Development, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Bergen - Norway, 1990) states that:

"when there are threats of serious or irreversible damage,
 lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason
 for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation"

In the submission by the Commission of the European Communities to the European Council meeting in Gothenburg [1], they said "in line with the precautionary principle, lack of knowledge must not become an excuse for lack of action or for ill-considered action.  Risk and uncertainty are part of life.  The role of science and research is to help identify the nature of the risks and uncertainties we face, so as to provide a basis for solutions and political decisions.  Policy makers have a responsibility to manage risk effectively, and to explain its nature and extent clearly to the public".

In the book by Harremoës et al [2], a series of case studies are presented considering:

fisheries radiation asbestos
Great Lakes chemicals PCBs halocarbons
lead in petrol sulphur dioxide benzene
diethylstilboestrol growth promoters 2 mad cow disease

and of especial relevance to the marine industry, the case of Tri Butyl Tin (TBT) Anti Fouling Toxin (AFT) coatings.  The chronology was:

For further information on anti-fouling paints, see the MATS324 page on environmental resistance of composites.

References for the Precautionary Principle

  1. A Sustainable Europe for a BetterWorld: A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development,
    Commission of the European Communities COM(2001)264 final, Brussels, 15.5.2001.
  2. Poul Harremoës et al, The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century: Late Lessons from Early Warnings, Earthscan Publications, London, 2002. ISBN 1-85383-893-4.   PU CSH Library.

URLs for the Precautionary Principle (checked as live on 17 February 2005)


Hauser and Lund define remanufacturing as:

URLs for remanufacturing (checked as live on 29 November 2004)

Technology insertion (extending service life without sacrificing reliability or affordability)

"Military electronic systems continue in active service for longer and longer periods, but still must evolve to counter the newest threats -- without sacrificing reliability or affordability. In many cases, these conflicting requirements can be satisfied with resourceful insertion of technology that alleviates obsolescence, increases reliability, lowers costs and improves performance". [Neil Lareau, Technology Insertion, www.gtri.gatech.edu/elsys/sen/area_techinsertion.html, accessed Monday 29 November 2004 18:01 (no longer available).]

URLs and other references for technology insertion (checked as live on 29 November 2004):

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Created by John Summerscales on 29 November 2004 and updated on 18-Feb-2022 8:48. Terms and conditions. Errors and omissions. Corrections.