|Quality Management and Safety Engineering (BSc) - MST 326|
Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000). Environmental Protection Act.
Polluter Pays Principle (PPP). Precautionary Principle. Remanufacturing. Technology Insertion.
Concern for environmental issues is not a new phenomenon: key dates ..and.. definitions of eco-efficiency.
A key political concept in this context is Sustainability and a major tool is Life Cycle Assessment/Analysis
Resources for environmental impacts and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).
PowerPoint presentation: Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000). Polluter Pays Principle (PPP). Precautionary Principle (60
Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14000)
Key management systems include:
and in an ideal situation these would be integrated as indicated in the Figure:
BS 7750 Environmental Management Systems was originally published in 1992 and updated in 1994. The pilot implementation program involved nearly 500 participants. The ISO 14000 series is modelled on BS7750 influenced by the Uruguay GATT negotiations and Rio Environment Summit in 1992. The standard is a model for an environmental management system consisting of several guideline standards with one compliance standard -- ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems.
The process for registration is similar to that for ISO 9000 registration. An organization may elect to comply with ISO 14001 as a:
- model for an Environmental Management System
- format against which to audit the Environmental Management System
- method of demonstrating the Environmental Management System compliance
- process for third party and/or customer recognition
- public declaration of their Environmental Management System
The benefits of implementing ISO 14001 may include:
- enhanced compliance to legislation
- facilitated financial and real estate transactions, where environmental performance is a factor
- reduced costs associated with consumer audits
- ability to bid for contracts (protection or increase of market share)
- market forces (a real or perceived 'greening' of the marketplace)
- economic return from increased efficiency of resource use; and
- increased ability to adapt to changing circumstances.
Registration to ISO 14001 should be considered when it:
- is a customer or industry requirement
- complements market strategy
- is perceived as a valuable motivational factor.
Registration generally requires twelve to eighteen months of effort depending on the complexity of the
organization and the existing systems. It will take at least the same time to develop and implement an Environmental Management System which complies with ISO 14001 requirements.
The compliance standard, ISO 14001 Environmental Management System has the following elements:
- Environmental policy
- Environmental aspects
- Legal and other requirements
- Objectives and targets
- Environmental management program(s)
- Implementation and operation
- Structure and responsibility
- Training, awareness and competence
- Environmental management system documentation
- Document control
- Operational control
- Emergency preparedness and response
- Checking and corrective action
- Monitoring and measurement
- Non-conformance and corrective and preventive action
- Environmental management system audit
- Management review
while the individual standards are:
- 14000:1996 Guide to Environmental Management Principles, Systems and Supporting Techniques
- 14001:1996 Environmental Management Systems - specification with guidance for use
- 14004:1996 Environmental Management Systems - general guidelines on principles, systems and supporting techniques
- 14006:2011 Environmental Management Systems – Guidelines for incorporating ecodesign
- 14010:1996 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing - general principles of environmental auditing
- 14011:1996 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing - audit procedures 1: environmental management systems
- 14012:1996 Guidelines for Environmental Auditing - qualification criteria for
- 14013:19xx Guidelines for Environmental Auditing - audit programmes, reviews and assessments
- 14015:2001 Environmental Management - environmental assessment of sites and organisations
- 14020:2000 Environmental Labels and Declarations - general principles
- 14021:1999 Environmental Labels and Declarations - self-declared environmental claims
- 14023 Environmental Labelling - practitioner programs - guiding principles, practices and certification procedures of multiple criteria programs
- 14024:1999 Environmental Labels and declarations - type I environmental labelling - principles and procedures
- 14025:2000 Technical Report: Environmental Labels and declarations - type III environmental declarations
- 14031:1999 Environmental Management - environmental performance evaluation
- 14032:1999 Technical Report: Environmental Management - examples of environmental performance evaluation (EPE)
- 14040:1997 Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - principles and frameworks
- 14041:1998 Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - goal and scope
definition and inventory analysis (superseded by ISO 14044)
- 14042:2000 Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - life cycle impact assessment (superseded by ISO 14044)
- 14043:2000 Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - life cycle interpretation (superseded by ISO 14044)
- 14044:2006 Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - requirements and guidelines
- 14047 Technical Report: Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - examples of application of ISO 14042
- 14048:2002 Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - data documentation format
- 14049:2000 Technical Report: Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - examples of applications of ISO 14041 to goal and scope definition and inventory analysis
- 14050 Environmental management - vocabulary
- 14060 Guide for the Inclusion of Environmental Aspects in Product Standards
- 14061:1998 Technical Report: Information to assist forestry organizations in the use of EMS standards ISO 14001 and ISO 14004
- 14062:2002 Technical Report: Environmental Management - integrating environmental aspects into product design and development
- 14064 Guidelines for measuring, reporting and verifying entity- and project-level greenhouse gas emissions
- 17021 part one: conformity assessment - requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of management systems
- cancels and replaces ISO/IEC Guide 62 (QMSs) and ISO/IEC Guide 66 (environmental management systems)
PD ISO/TR 14062:2002 is intended for use by all those involved in the design and development of products. It suggests that the potential benefits of this methodology may include:
- lower costs by optimising the use of materials and energy, more efficient processes, and reduced waste disposal
- stimulation of innovation and creativity
- identification of new products, e.g. from discarded materials
- meeting or surpassing customer expectations
- enhancement of organisation image and/or brand
- improved customer loyalty
- attraction of financing and investment, particularly from environmentally conscious investors
- enhancement of employee motivation
- increased knowledge about the product
- reduction in liability through reduced environmental impacts
- reduction of risks
- improved relations with regulators
- improved internal and external communications
When Ford's Tier I suppliers had to certify at least one of their manufacturing facilities to the ISO 14001 Standard, Sally Lee (Environmental Purchasing Strategy Specialist) at Ford Motor Company interviewed by the Environmental Management Report stated:
"that they are generally pleased with the response to date and do not plan to extend the [31 December 2001] deadline".
All manufacturing sites shipping products to Ford had to be certified by 1 July 2003.
IBM strongly encouraged its suppliers to register to IS0 140001.
General Motors required all of its suppliers to be certified to the ISO 14001 Standard by 31 December 2002.
Environmental Management Systems
Sheldon and Yoxon suggest that a score should be calculated
for each different area of business:
Score = Environmental hazard x Likelihood of the problem arising x Size of the Problem
Each parameter is allocated a value ranging from 1 for a low rating up to 3 for high rating. The minimum score is thus one and the maximum score is 27. A Pareto chart can then indicate which issues should be given highest priority.
- C Sheldon and M Yoxon, Environmental Management Systems – a step-by-step guide to implementation and
maintenance – third edition, Earthscan, London and Sterling VA, 2006. ISBN: 978-1-844072-57-6. PU CSH Library.
The Green Blue is a new environmental awareness initiative by the British Marine Federation and the Royal Yachting Association which aims to promote the sustainable use of coastal and inland waters by boating and watersports participants, and the sustainable operation and development of the recreational boating industry. Green Blue has prepared a series of case studies of environmental good practice, including:
URLs for ISO 14000 (checked as live on 09 April 2018):
URLs for ISO 14040 (checked as live on 09 April 2018):
For relevant recommended reading on polymers and composites, see the
environmental implications page.
Environmental Protection Act
- Integrated Pollution Control and Air Pollution Control by Local Authorities
- Waste on Land
- Statutory Nuisances and Clean Air
- Litter, etc.
- Radioactive Substances
- Genetically Modified Organisms
- Nature Conservation and Countryside Matters
URLs for national Environment Protection legislation (checked as live on 09 April 2018):
Directive 2004/35/EC (of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004) on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (ELD) establishes a framework based on the polluter pays principle to prevent and remedy environmental damage. This is "the principle that a company that causes pollution should pay for the cost of removing it, or provide compensation to those who have been affected by it" [MSN Encarta, accessed Monday 29 November 2004 18:16]. The core of the "Polluter Pays" principle is that:
- the polluter should pay for any environmental damage created
- the burden of proof in demonstrating that a particular technology, practice or product is safe should lie with the developer, not the general public.
Unfortunately, when and how much the polluter should pay is often unclear. One way to adequately implement the PPP in the real world makes use of what are known as assurance bonds:
- money is put up by the "polluter" to insure against a worst case environmental impact
- the bond is recovered only if, after sufficient time, it is demonstrated that the technology, process or product in question had been deemed to be as safe as was reasonably acceptable.
- alternatively, if damage occurred, the bond would be used for environmental restoration, and to pay damages to anyone who had been harmed.
- the bond accrues interest: the "polluter" receives an incentive to ensure that best environmental practice is followed,
and to demonstrate that the technology, process or product is as safe as is practicably possible, without involving excessive cost.
The Precautionary Principle (Ministerial Declaration on Sustainable Development, United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe, Bergen - Norway, 1990) states that:
"when there are threats of serious or irreversible damage,
lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason
for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation".
In the submission by the Commission of the European Communities to the European Council meeting in Gothenburg , they said "in line with the precautionary principle, lack of knowledge must not become an excuse for lack of action or for ill-considered action. Risk and uncertainty are part of life. The role of science and research is to help identify the nature of the risks and uncertainties we face, so as to provide a basis for solutions and political decisions. Policy makers have a responsibility to manage risk effectively, and to explain its nature and extent clearly to the public".
In the book by Harremoës et al , a series of case studies are presented considering:
|Great Lakes chemicals
|lead in petrol
||growth promoters 2
||mad cow disease|
and of especial relevance to the marine industry, the case of Tri Butyl Tin (TBT) Anti Fouling Toxin (AFT) coatings. The chronology was:
- C4 BC: Aristotle notes small fish (barnacles) slow down ships
- 1824: Sir Humphrey Davy: anti-fouling action of copper sheathing on wooden ships related to rate of
- 1863: Tarr & Wonson, US patent 40 515: cuprous oxide (Cu20) as AFT
- 1943: Tisdale, British patent 578 312: organotin compounds as AFT.
- 1960s: introduction of commercial TBT AFT
- 1970s: rapid take-up of TBT by shipping and small boats
- 1970: Blaber (Plymouth Sound): appearance of penis in female dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus)
- 1971: Smith (US East Coast): "imposex" in mud-snails (Nassarius obsoletus) .. development of male sexual structures in females
- 1975: New Scientist v35 p316: hull drag due to fouling estimated to consume 25% of US Navy fuel
- early 1980s: TBT responsible for imposex in oyster drill (Oceanebra erinacea) in Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic)
- from mid 1970s to 1981: oyster production falls by 80% (from 15K to 3K tonnes) due to reproductive failure and shell deformation
- 1982: France legislates to prohibit TBT AFT on vessels <25m
- 1985: UK controls on sale of TBT AFT for use on small vessels
- January 1987: reduction of UK TBT levels
- May 1987: total UK ban on retail sales of TBT AFT for vessels <25m
- 1988: prohibition in US
- 1989: prohibition in Canada - Australia - New Zealand
- 1991: harmonisation of EU TBT controls
- 1994: Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) "no further controls were necessary"
- 1995: 4th Conf Protection of the North Sea agreed concerted action for worldwide phase-out of TBT on all ships
- 1998: MEPC draft mandatory regulations
- 2003: phase out of application of TBT
- 2008: phase-out of the presence of TBT on ALL ship hulls
For further information on anti-fouling paints, see the
MATS324 page on environmental resistance of composites.
References for the Precautionary Principle
- A Sustainable Europe for a BetterWorld: A European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development,
Commission of the European Communities COM(2001)264 final, Brussels, 15.5.2001.
- Poul Harremoës et al, The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century: Late Lessons from Early Warnings, Earthscan Publications, London, 2002. ISBN 1-85383-893-4. PU CSH Library.
URLs for the Precautionary Principle (checked as live on 17 February 2005)
- World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST), The Precautionary Principle, UNESCO, Paris, March 2005.
Hauser and Lund define remanufacturing as:
- A worn-out or discarded product is disassembled
- Parts are cleaned, inspected, refurbished or replaced as necessary
- Product is reassembled and tested to perform like new
- W Hauser and RT Lund, Remanufacturing - an American resource, PowerPoint slideshow, accessed Monday 29 November 2004 18:27 (no longer available).
URLs for remanufacturing (checked as live on 29 November 2004)
Technology insertion (extending service life without sacrificing reliability or affordability)
"Military electronic systems continue in active service for longer and longer periods, but still must evolve to counter the newest threats -- without sacrificing reliability or affordability. In many cases, these conflicting requirements can be satisfied with resourceful insertion of technology that alleviates obsolescence, increases reliability, lowers costs and improves performance". [Neil Lareau, Technology Insertion, www.gtri.gatech.edu/elsys/sen/area_techinsertion.html, accessed Monday 29 November 2004 18:01 (no longer available).]
URLs and other references for technology insertion (checked as live on 29 November 2004):
- P Sandborn, P Singh, T Herald and J Houston, Optimum technology insertion into systems based on the assessment of viability, IEEE Trans. on Components and Packaging Technologies, December 2003, 26(4), 734-738.
- Ryan Hood, Mark Venner and Paul Winstanley, Technology insertion: shaping tomorrow's capability, Journal of Defence Science, 2006, 10(4), 218-223.
- CIV Kerr, R Phaal and D R Probert, Technology insertion in the defence industry: a primer, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2008, 222(8), 1009-1023.
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Created by John Summerscales on 29 November 2004 and updated on 18-Feb-2022 8:48. Terms and conditions. Errors and omissions. Corrections.